Amount of Available Light and Movement
During the fall, as the leaves begin to fall, most whitetail deer movement occurs
at night, and most deer are seen during daylight hours at dawn and dusk, when
they feel secure. Deer feel secure moving in low light conditions. It doesn't
make any difference what time of day it is as long as the light conditions resemble
those at dawn and dusk. When cloud cover, fog, light rain or snow reduces the
amount of available sunlight deer feel secure moving and feeding during daylight.
Throughout much of North America the sky is cloudy most of the time from November
on, which often causes deer to move during the day.
During cold weather deer move less, because cold temperatures cause them to
lose body heat. However, when prolonged cold weather keeps deer from feeding
regularly; or when low food sources and cold weather cause them to lose calories
and weight, they are forced to locate food, and they often move during the warmest
part of the day, usually in the late afternoon or early evening, especially
if there is cloud cover that may keep heat from dissipating.
In the northern states, when the temperature, dewpoint or wind-chill drop below
20 degrees, deer movement is often restricted to heavy cover, downwind sides
of hills, low lying, or other protected areas, where deer can escape wind-chills.
My research indicates that wind-chill is the determining factor in deer movement.
Although I often saw deer during the day when temperatures were above 20 degrees
I rarely saw deer in the open when wind speeds reduced 20 degree temperatures
to wind-chills below 20 degrees. It doesn't take much of a wind to create a
low wind-chill. A five mile per hour wind at 20 degrees produces a 16 degree
wind-chill. A ten mile an hour wind at 20 degrees produces a 4 degree wind-chill.
High wind-speeds also decrease deer movement. Strong winds make it difficult
for deer to hear properly, and if the deer are in wooded areas the wind blows
scent around, bouncing it off trees, making it difficult to determine the source
of the scent. In most areas wind-speeds between 10 and 20 miles per hour make
deer nervous and cause them to stay in protected areas, or seek areas where
there is less wind. Deer in the plains states, where wind speeds often average
15 miles per hour are more tolerant of high winds than woodland deer.
When food sources are scarce, especially after agricultural crops have been
harvested, grazing plants have been depleted and mast and berries are gone,
deer are forced to rely primarily on browse. If other preferred food sources
are available deer will use them until they are depleted, then search for another
source. Limited food sources in late fall/early winter often concentrate the
deer, including older trophy class bucks, on the food sources.
During my study, when wind-chills were above 20 degrees, most deer sightings
occurred from 4:00 to 8:30 PM, and from 5:30 to 8:30 AM. When temperatures were
below 20 degrees, and when cloud cover provided low light security factors during
the day, I saw deer feeding in open areas as early 2:30 in the afternoon; and
they were seen returning to their bedding areas as late as 9:00 in the morning.
Although bucks generally head back to their core areas before the does I often
saw them as late as 8:30; from an hour to a half hour after sunrise. When the
sky was cloudy, wind-chills were below 20 degrees and the wind-speed was below
10 miles per hour, most deer sightings occurred between 2:30 and 6:00 PM and
between 6:30 and 9:00 AM.
Post Rut Bucks
Although early winter creates harsh conditions with low temperatures, rain and
snow, it is one of the few times during the year when bucks carrying trophy
racks may be seen together. Because the rut is over the bucks are no longer
antagonistic toward each other, and they often begin to reform the bachelor
groups they were in before the rut. They are also in search of high quality
foods, in order to gain back the weight they lost during the rut. This combination
of factors provides late season hunters the opportunity to see several bucks,
including some that are trophy class, together on a regular basis.
On several occasions I have seen trophy class, dominant bucks like the three
mentioned above, traveling together when the sky was cloudy and the temperatures
were low. The largest deer I ever saw, a 12 point 200 class buck, was traveling
with a button buck near a cornfield on a cold, cloudy day in December at 8:30
in the morning.
The Right Area
The key to hunting late season trophy bucks, as you can see by my hunt, is to
be in an area where trophy bucks abound. That hunt took place in a lightly hunted
region of southern Minnesota, where hunting is by primitive methods only. Because
of the hunting restrictions, and the cold weather, hunting pressure is always
minimal, and there are several bucks scoring between 140 and 170 in the area,
making it easy for a persistent hunter to see trophy bucks.
When you are hunting late season deer you need to know where the food sources
are, and know the trails the deer use during daylight as they move to and from
the fields. The easiest way to find the food sources is to regularly scout the
area by driving the farm country roads to locate fields that haven't been picked.
Or you can get up high and watch the deer from a distance. Personally I like
to watch deer from a portable stand or blind, or a high hill where you can stand
and wait for the deer.
Right Place, Right Time
When you are hunting in the afternoon or evening, the farther from the food
source you are, without getting too close to bedding areas, the better your
chances of seeing deer during the day. Even though the deer may arrive at the
food source well before dark, they are most alert near the food sources, where
you may be detected. And, because bucks generally travel later than does, you
will have a better chance of seeing them in protected areas, well away from
the food sources, in the early afternoon.
When you are hunting in the morning try to position yourself between night resting
areas, early morning food sources, and daytime bedding areas. Your hunting sites
should be located along trails leading to buck bedding areas so you have an
opportunity as the bucks return to their beds.
I often see deer bed and feed in overgrown fields of brush and saplings on the
downwind side of hills in the morning. They often stay in these areas until
daylight, then, as the sun rises, move to areas of deeper cover. When this happens
you can setup downwind or crosswind of the trails the deer use as they leave.
You can also setup near known buck bedding areas, provided you get there before
the buck returns.
The time to hunt late season bucks is when the conditions are right. When foods
are scarce, or a preferred food is available; and when there is cloud cover
and the wind-chills drop, expect to see deer earlier in the evening and later
in the morning than normal. After a winter storm lets up, or it has been cold,
windy, or there has been heavy precipitation for more than a day and a half,
causing deer to miss two or more feeding periods, and then the wind dies down,
or the wind-chill rises, expect deer to begin feeding, and to continue for the
next couple of hours.
Late Season Tactics
With the rut over and most of the does bred, bucks are not as willing to respond
to calling, rattling, scents and decoys as they were during the rut. But, as
long as a buck carries antlers it's testosterone level is still elevated, and
it may respond to estrus scents and doe calls, which can be effective when used
along rub routes and scrape lines; and near daytime staging areas, food sources
and buck core areas. Because bucks are not traveling as much, or as willing
to respond at this time, the key to attracting bucks is to be in or near areas
bucks use during the day.
Estrus scents can be placed so they spread out downwind of your hunting position
to attract the buck as it approaches a food source. Estrus can also be used
on a scent line by leaving drops of scent on the ground along a line that crosses
a deer trail and leads to your location. Although scientific research suggests
there is no doe estrus call the "social grunt," which is used by does
when they are trying to locate each other will get a buck's attention at this
time. When a buck responds to scents or calls it may not be because of rutting
urge, it may simply be because of curiosity.
Decoys can provide the needed visual stimulus to bring a buck within range after
it has responded to scents or calls. Bucks are not looking for a fight at this
time of the year, and because of this doe decoys work best. A decoy with antlers
may intimidate or alarm a buck, causing it to leave the area. Mobility is a
key factor in late season hunting. I use a collapsible bedded doe decoy because
it's lightweight and rolls up for easy transportation. With their low profile
bedded decoys should be placed in a semi-open area, preferably not on a trail.
In several field tests I have seen deer skirt a bedded decoy on a trail, while
walking right up to it in other areas. Place bedded decoys near a bush or tree
where a deer would normally bed. Standing decoys can be placed in tall grass,
brush or any other area where deer might be found.
Because deer, including bucks, are looking for food at this time of the year
the combination of tarsal scent and deer urine on the ground, leading to a food
scent, can be very effective. The tarsal and urine are non-threatening and may
arouse the buck's curiosity, the food attractant then brings it within range.
These scents may also attract does, which may be followed by bucks. When using
scents choose those particular to your area. Corn, apple and acorn scents work
well in most areas.
Again, because the rut is over, bucks are not looking to exert dominance, or
looking for a fight, and they seldom respond to buck scents, aggressive grunts,
tending grunts and rattling. However, these products and techniques, when used
in combination with doe or estrus scents to create the illusion of a buck with
an estrus doe, may attract a buck that simply hasn't had enough of the rut yet.